The Osage tribe used the Ozarks in historic times and consider the Arkansas Ozarks a part of their ancestral territory. Once they entered Texas the Spaniards traveled along an aboriginal trail (the Caddo Trace) that extended from the Red River southwest into the heart of East Texas, and connected to other trails (part of El Camino Real) within the Angelina and Neches river basins. The other was the Tejas or Hasinais Caddo who lived around present day Nacogdoches. For instance, large bluffs overlooking the White River came to be specifically used as mortuary houses and the people who were interred here seem to have a special status. They are relative newcomers in the area, having arrived in the late eighteenth through early nineteenth centuries, largely due to pressures caused by European settlement east of the Mississippi and in the Midwest. The presence of what appear to be litters, marine shell, and multiple individuals interred in “set-aside” repositories at sites like Edens Bluff and Putnam certainly indicate an elaborate burial program during the late prehistoric period in the Ozarks, at least along the Upper White River and in the vicinity of the ceremonial mound centers. Moreover, these tribes were, for the most part, removed from Arkansas to Indian Territory by the mid-nineteenth century, making their sojourn in Arkansas fairly short. THE SURVEY'S MISSION is to study Arkansas's past, to preserve and manage information about archeological sites, and to share what we learn with the people of Arkansas. The Caddo were farmers who lived in East Texas. They had no metal hammers and nails to join the pieces of their houses together. Produced by UT Austin, this site delves into the world of the Caddo Nation, including relevant lesson plans. The weapons used by the Caddo included axes, war clubs, maces, knives, pikes and bows and arrows, commonly made of bois de arc wood. For more information on Native American’s in Louisiana, check out the Louisiana’s Division of Archeology webpage. By the time people began building mounds in the Ozarks, generations of their ancestors had used the bluffs leaving behind artifacts that were discovered by these new residents as they cleaned shelter floors, prepared hearths, and dug storage pits. Choose from 500 different sets of native american texas history flashcards on Quizlet. This seems like a straight forward question but the answer, as with so many things in archeology, is complicated. Even so, there are some tribal names that we can link to the late prehistoric and historic periods in the Ozarks—about the last thousand years of our 9,000 year occupation span. The name chosen, “Bluff-dweller,” was not based on any Native American tribe, but was constructed based on an interpretation of the artifacts. Thus the bluff shelters in the Ozarks may have been historic landmarks even in the prehistoric period. The Osage are identified as a Dhegiha Siouan language speaking tribe, along with the Omaha, Ponca, Kaw, and Quapaw. Often associated with the Iroquois, longhouses are rectangular-shaped and generally had doors at both ends. Even so, there are some tribal names that we. Dr. George Sabo’s interpretation of the human figures at The Narrows as a depiction of a dance honoring a Native American creation myth is one such example. The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Adai Caddo Indian Nation is the name of a Native American people of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas with a Southeastern culture. The interpretation turned out to be wrong and served to create the appearance of a distinct culture isolated from its neighbors. In particular, notice their downloadable books. Hernando De Soto visited Arkansas in 1541 and surviving accounts of his expedition record their encounters with Native American groups in the state. In particular, notice their downloadable books. Many Native American belief systems divide the spirit world into an above world and a below world that have different, sometimes opposite, characteristics. More directly for our purposes, researchers are now drawing connections between these Spiro-influenced mound centers and distinctive mortuary patterns found in some Ozark bluff shelters—particularly in the Upper White River basin. Contemporary Native American tribes such as the Osage and Caddo Nations feel a strong historical connection to Ozark bluff shelters, and that they have a responsibility to help protect these sites which may be affiliated with their ancestors. The Soto expedition provides historians and archeologists with our first glimpse of what the Native American world looked like in Arkansas, but the expedition itself dramatically changed Native American life and culture. The Arkansas River Valley and parts of the adjoining Arkansas Ozarks have long been described as the “Northern Caddo Area” by archeologists who saw clear connections between regional ceremonial sites, such as Spiro Mounds in eastern Oklahoma, and the Caddo heartland. Caddo village scene about 900 years ago (A.D. 1100) as envisioned by artist George S. Nelson. The Caddoan Mississippian culture was a prehistoric Native American culture considered by archaeologists as a variant of the Mississippian culture. 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