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solanum tuberosum meaning

Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended. Definition of solanum tuberosum in the dictionary. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. Solanum tuberosum, better known as the potato, is a popular vegetable crop for home gardeners. It is crucial that the storage area is dark, ventilated well and, for long-term storage, maintained at temperatures near 4 °C (39 °F). annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous The definition of Solanum Tuberosum is followed by practically usable example sentences which allow you to construct your own sentences based on it. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. [86] United Kingdom was a close second. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites. Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber. It is also occasionally seen in Korean and Thai cuisines. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. [59], Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. [37], Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[38] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars. [60] In particular, consuming reheated or cooled potatoes that were previously cooked may yield a lower GI effect. and N. Olsen. 388 Integrated Control of Potato Late Blight in the Nordic and Baltic Countries. PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING TRAITS OF RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM A significant association between Liriomyza huidobrensis leafminers and Alternaria solani fungus is reported here for the first time in a commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) field in Brazil. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. 102579405: Uncharacterized protein; AP2/ERF domain-containing transcription factor (250 aa) In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans. Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and, in severe cases, coma and death. Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed. [8], Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. [25] The international Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium announced in 2009 that they had achieved a draft sequence of the potato genome. [16] Potatoes are occasionally referred to as Irish potatoes or white potatoes in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago. Burn centres in India have experimented with the use of the thin outer skin layer to protect burns while healing. [47][48], In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.[49][50][51]. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. Hancock RD, Morris WL, Ducreux LJM, Morris JA, Usman M, Verrall SR, Fuller J, Simpson R, Zhang CG, Hedley PE and MA TaylorPhysiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (, In-vitro sterilization protocol for micropropagation of, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING TRAITS OF RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM, First record of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) disseminating Alternaria solani (Pleosporaceae) in potato crops in Brazil, Histopathology of Andean Potato (Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group) varieties parasitized by the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans/Histopatologia de variedades de batata andina (Solanum tuberosum grupo Andigenum) parasitadas pelo falso nematoide das galhas, Nacobbus aberrans, Potato project to unlock potential of crop in the Rift, Diversidad genetica de papas nativas (Solanum spp.) This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 11:56. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[30][73] and the United States. 2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g. Wound-healing prevents infection and water-loss from the tubers during storage. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. [60], In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.[61]. solanum tuberosum n : annual native to south america having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous [syn: potato, white potato , white potato vine, solanum tuberosum] Dictionary source: hEnglish - advanced version More: English to English translation of Solanum tuberosum Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. McDonald's, Burger King, Frito-Lay, and Procter & Gamble announced they would not use genetically modified potatoes, and Monsanto published its intent to discontinue the line in March 2001. Authors Myron A Bruce 1 2 , Jessica L Shoup Rupp 3 4 Affiliations 1 Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. [31], Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. [8][57], A raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp. 2003. H raw sorghum Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.[71]. noun. Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). Potatoes are also used for purposes other than eating by humans, for example: Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. [6] It has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries. 2019;1864:203-223. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8778-8_15. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. What does solanum tuberosum mean? China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. [58] When a potato is baked, its contents of vitamin B6 and vitamin C decline notably, while there is little significant change in the amount of other nutrients. In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried. In Western Europe, especially in Belgium, sliced potatoes are fried to create frieten, the original French fried potatoes. [69][70], New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. del distrito de Vilcashuaman, Ayacucho--Peru, mediante AFLP, Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Activities of Polyphenol Extracts from Solanum tuberosum spp. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean. The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan. The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. andigena Cultivars on Escherichia coli and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro, GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION, STABILITY AND CO-HERITABILITY OF TUBER INTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) CULTIVARS IN ETHIOPIA, Effect of Physical, Chemical and Physiochemical Treatments of Surface Sterilisation on Medicinal Plants Salvadora persica and Solanum surattense for In-vitro Propagation. Illustration #85 in: Martin Cilenšek: Naše škodljive rastline, Celovec (1892) [92] As well as affecting potatoes directly, climate change will also affect the distributions and populations of many potato diseases and pests. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants … In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. [112] High-density potatoes are desirable in the production of dehydrated mashed potatoes, potato crisps and french fries.[112]. The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world. [21][22], The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. In South Asia, the potato is a very popular traditional staple. : De gebruiker mag: Delen – het werk kopiëren, verspreiden en doorgeven; Remixen – afgeleide werken maken; Onder de volgende voorwaarden: Naamsvermelding – U moet op een gepaste manier aan naamsvermelding doen, een link naar de … Other favourite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop. A regional dish of Central New York, salt potatoes are bite-size new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter. Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food. Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D., and Weingartner, D.P. Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years. [35] Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. List of sequenced plant genomes on Wikipedia. [41], Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. The subunits can dissociate in solution to produce a monomeric form of the lectin which does not agglutinate cells. In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. Piant da pòmm da tèra. F raw green soybeans Solanum tuberosum meaning in Bengali - আলু; ; murphy; | English – Bangla & English (E2B) Online Dictionary. [66], Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country,, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. [113], The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. [82] The commercial storage and retrieval of potatoes involves several phases: first drying surface moisture; wound healing at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. De Latijnse benaming Solanaceae zou staan voor 'troostrijke knol'. The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. The Lenape variety was released in 1967 but was withdrawn in 1970 as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids. Definition of SOLANUM TUBEROSUM • Dictionary meaning of Solanum tuberosum • Words with similar meaning as Solanum tuberosum The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. Meaning of solanum tuberosum. In Tamil Nadu this tuber acquired a name based on its appearance 'urulai-k-kizhangu' (உருளைக் கிழங்கு) meaning cylindrical tuber. (Solanum komt van solanine de giftige stof die in de vrucht zit, niet in de knol). ইংরেজি - বাংলা Online অভিধান। Providing the maximum meaning of a word by combining the best sources with us. Ó Gráda, Cormac, Richard Paping, and Eric Vanhaute, eds. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Solanum tuberosum lectin consists of two identical 50 kDa subunits. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Solanum tuberosum L., Potato Methods Mol Biol. Invented in 1949, and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in 1952, Mr. [108] German fries and various version of Potato salad are part of German cuisine. New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 and 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. The consistent parenchyma tissue, the clonal nature of the plant and the low metabolic activity provide a very nice "model tissue" for experimentation. Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts, which damage them in the ground. Hypernyms (species): Solanales - order; Solanaceae - family; Solanoideae - subfamily; Solaneae - tribe; Solanum - genus; Hyponyms (species): For varieties see Potato#Varieties on Wikipedia. According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. [28] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex). A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. GM Crop Events developed by J.R. Simplot Co. - Meaning of solanum tuberosum and a memory aid (called Mnemonic) to retain that meaning for long time in our memory. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. dark = mother tuber Podzemljica. [81], Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic. Dit bestand is gelicenseerd onder de Creative Commons-licenties Naamsvermelding-Gelijk delen 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Algemeen, 2.0 Algemeen en 1.0 Algemeen. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. Solanum definition is - nightshade. [15] In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.[116]. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. —, "Can you pass this forest ranger exam from 1925?," 16 Jan. 2018 Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally. EWG’s Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases. [80], Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: floury or mealy baking potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy boiling potatoes (16–18%). The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre). [29], Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. Storage Management, in: Potato Production Systems, J.C. Stark and S.L. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. It was the first toy ever advertised on television. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange. De aardappel: Solanum tuberosum. (The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: flowers, sprouts, leaves, tuber skin, roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer cortex of tuber flesh], stems, and tuber flesh).[11]. [72] Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. [52][53] The most widely cultivated variety, Solanum tuberosum tuberosum, is indigenous to the Chiloé Archipelago, and has been cultivated by the local indigenous people since before the Spanish conquest. Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. [40] In 2010, potatoes were bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient. Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. Solanum tuberosum by Gaspard Bauhin (1591) oldest known European picture by Carolus Clusius (1583) Lower part of S. tuberosum plant. [117], "Spud" redirects here. Like the tomato, the potato is a nightshade in the genus Solanum, and the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine which is dangerous for human consumption. In Ecuador, the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas, a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory.

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