, The crew settled in for its voyage to Fra Mauro.  Similarly, Shepard was the first on the lunar surface to wear a space suit with commander's stripes: red stripes on arms, legs, and on the helmet, though one had been worn by Lovell on Apollo 13. The effectiveness of the training was limited by a lack of enthusiasm shown by Shepard, which set the tone for Mitchell. , The flight directors during Apollo had a one-sentence job description, "The flight director may take any actions necessary for crew safety and mission success. Of the 21 thumpers, five failed to fire. Apollo 14 Astronauts (L) R Stuart Roosa Alan B Shepard Jr And Edg F 334606 001 Usa File Photo: Apollo 14 Astronauts, (L-R) Stuart Roosa, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., And Edgar Mitchell, Speak To Personnel Aboard The Prime Recovery Vessel Through The Window Of The Mobile Quarantine Facility Following Their Recovery From The Pacific Ocean Feburary 9, 1971. , After the vehicle reached orbit, the S-IVB third stage shut down, and the astronauts performed checks of the spacecraft before restarting the stage for translunar injection (TLI), the burn that placed the vehicle on course for the Moon.  They remained there until their release from quarantine on February 27, 1971. He is the only astronaut from Project Mercury (the original Mercury Seven astronauts) to reach the Moon. This was done in preparation for the release of the LM Antares. , A second problem occurred during the powered descent, when the LM landing radar failed to lock automatically onto the Moon's surface, depriving the navigation computer of vital information on the vehicle's altitude and vertical descent speed. The software was hard-wired, preventing it from being updated from the ground.  Some seedlings were given to state forestry associations in 1975 and 1976 to mark the United States Bicentennial. , Mitchell's commander on the Apollo 10 backup crew had been another of the original seven, Gordon Cooper, who had tentatively been scheduled to command Apollo 13, but according to author Andrew Chaikin, his casual attitude toward training resulted in his nonselection. , Roosa took pictures from lunar orbit. Apollo 14 – The Comeback. These activities were televised back to Earth, though the picture tended to degenerate during the latter portion of the EVA. Because it had, just over two days after launch, the mission timers would be put ahead by 40 minutes and 3 seconds so that later events would take place at the times scheduled in the flight plan. Apollo 11: The Inside Story David Whitehouse. Apollo 20, Liste der künstlichen Objekte auf dem Mond, LROC News System: Trail of Discovery at Fra Mauro, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apollo_14&oldid=202446974, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, ein aktives seismisches Experiment, welches Sprengladungen in die Mondoberfläche schoss, ein „Suprathermal Ion Detector“ Experiment zum Aufspüren von Gasen, ein „Cold Cathode Gauge“ Experiment zur Atmosphärendruckmessung, ein „Charged Particle Lunar Environment“ Experiment, eine Art, ein Laserreflektor zur Bestimmung des Abstands Erde-Mond (. The Apollo 14 astronauts continued their training. In 2011, the LRO returned to the landing site at a lower altitude to take higher resolution photographs. " In their sourcebook on Apollo, Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland doubted that if Apollo 13 had reached the Moon, Lovell and Haise, given a more distant landing point, could have gotten as close to Cone crater as Shepard and Mitchell did.  The difficulties faced by Shepard and Mitchell would emphasize the need for a means of transportation on the lunar surface with a navigation system, which was met by the Lunar Roving Vehicle, already planned to fly on Apollo 15.  He served as a capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for Apollo 9. This was done to increase the amount of hover time available to the astronauts, a safety factor since Apollo 14 was to land in rough terrain. The LM was modified to make transfer of power from LM to CM easier. After recovery by the ship USS New Orleans, the crew was flown to Pago Pago International Airport in Tafuna, then to Honolulu, then to Ellington Air Force Base near Houston in a plane containing a Mobile Quarantine Facility trailer before they continued their quarantine in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. This would prevent the low fuel light coming on prematurely, as had happened on Apollo 11 and 12.  These had been flown on Apollo 13, but Shepard and Mitchell were the first to use them on the Moon. He was assigned to squadrons aboard aircraft carriers before returning to the United States to further his education while in the Navy, also completing the ARPS prior to his selection as a Group 5 astronaut. Additionally, they consistently overestimated the distance they traveled. In an interview with Ottawa Golf, Shepard stated the other landed near the ALSEP. It was the last of the "H missions," landings at specific sites of scientific interest on the Moon for two-day stays with two lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs or moonwalks). , The Saturn V used for Apollo 14 was designated SA-509, and was similar to those used on Apollo 8 through 13.  Apollo 14's landing site was located slightly closer to Cone crater than the point designated for Apollo 13. It was combined with the CCIG, which was to measure the lunar atmosphere and detect if it varied over time. Wie schon beim Start von Apollo 12 herrschte … Before the switch, the astronauts had been taken to volcanic sites on Earth; afterwards, they visited crater sites, such as the Ries Crater in West Germany and an artificial crater field created for astronaut training in Arizona's Verde Valley. Shepard was the oldest U.S. astronaut when he made his trip aboard Apollo 14. Among those present to watch the launch were U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew and the Prince of Spain, the future King Juan Carlos I. Apollo 14 was the first H-type mission which was followed by Apollo 15. Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation – originally the target of Apollo 13. The two men pored over lunar maps depicting the areas the CSM would pass over. Security officer Dearmond Matthews prepares to open the door to the quarantined area. Reihenfolge unserer qualitativsten Apollo astronaut scott. , Apollo 14 launched from Launch Complex 39-A at KSC at 4:03:02 pm (21:03:02 UTC), January 31, 1971.  The mission would take a faster trajectory to the Moon than planned, and thus make up the time in flight. Testberichte zu Apollo astronaut scott analysiert. It was hoped that the waves generated from the impacts would provide data about seismic wave transmission in the Moon's regolith. Apollo 14 was the eighth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, the third to land on the Moon, and the first to land in the lunar highlands.  CAPCOMs, the individuals in Mission Control responsible for communications with the astronauts were Evans, McCandless, Fullerton and Haise. Roosa, who had practiced the maneuver many times, hoped to break the record for the least amount of propellent used in docking.  One patch, attached to Shepard's PLSS, was worn on the lunar surface, and, mounted on a plaque, was presented by him to Cernan after the mission. Da diese Mission den Mond jedoch nicht erreichte, übernahm Apollo 14 diese Aufgabe. There was some difficulty locating a level site.  On June 30, 1970, following the release of the accident report and a NASA review of what changes to the spacecraft would be necessary, NASA announced that the launch would slip to no earlier than January 31, 1971. Apollo 14 astronauts, Stuart Roosa, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Edgar Mitchell, speak to personnel aboard the prime recovery vessel through the window... Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Rollout of the Apollo 14 launch vehicle began at 6:30 A. The astronauts devoted much of the first EVA to equipment offloading, deployment of the ALSEP and the US flag, as well as setting up and loading the MET. He then fired the thumper explosives, vibrations from which would give scientists back on Earth information about the depth and composition of the lunar regolith. He had experimental surgery in 1968 which was successful and allowed his return to flight status. , A number of changes were made to avoid pogo oscillations, that had caused an early shutdown of the center J-2 engine on Apollo 13's S-II second stage. Structural changes were made to accommodate the equipment to be used on the lunar surface, including the Modular Equipment Transporter. Apollo 14: Roosa, Shepard ja Mitchell. After liftoff from the surface and a successful docking, the spacecraft was flown back to Earth where the three astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on February 9.  The launch vehicle stack, with the spacecraft on top, was rolled out from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad 39A on November 9, 1970. These were germinated after the return to Earth, and were widely distributed around the world as commemorative Moon trees.  During his rest periods on the voyage, Mitchell conducted ESP experiments without NASA's knowledge or sanction, attempting by prearrangement to send images of cards he had brought with him to four people on Earth. These included a helium gas accumulator installed in the liquid oxygen (LOX) line of the center engine, a backup cutoff device for that engine, and a simplified 2-position propellant utilization valve on each of the five J-2 engines.  The first EVA lasted 4 hours, 47 minutes, 50 seconds. They topped one ridge that they expected was the crater rim, only to view more such terrain beyond.  Shepard, at age 47, was the oldest U.S. astronaut to fly when he made his trip aboard Apollo 14, and he is the oldest person to walk on the Moon. The Fra Mauro formation is composed of ejecta from the impact event that formed Mare Imbrium, and scientists hoped for samples that originated deep under the Moon's surface. The LPM was new, but resembled equipment flown on Apollo 12. Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell launched on their nine-day mission on Sunday, January 31, 1971, at 4:03:02 p.m. EST, following a weather delay of forty minutes and two seconds. Additionally, a navigation exercise was done to simulate a return to Earth following a loss of communications. Two additional lunar surface experiments not part of the ALSEP were also flown, the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR or LR3), to be deployed in the ALSEP's vicinity, and the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM), to be used by the astronauts during their second EVA.  The PSE had been flown on Apollo 12 and 13, the ASE on Apollo 13, the SIDE on Apollo 12, the CCIG on Apollo 12 and 13 and the LRRR on Apollo 11.  The LRRR acts as a passive target for laser beams, allowing the measurement of the Earth/Moon distance and how it changes over time. In such an emergency, the astronaut with the failed equipment would get oxygen from his Oxygen Purge System (OPS) backup cylinder, but the BSLSS would ensure he did not have to use oxygen for cooling, extending the life of the OPS. Nach dem Scheitern von Apollo 13 wurden einige der vorgesehenen Aufgaben auf Apollo 14 übertragen. Mission rules required an abort if the landing radar was out at 10,000 feet (3,000 m), though Shepard might have tried to land without it. " Geologist Lee Silver stated, "The Apollo 14 crews did not have the right attitude, did not learn enough about their mission, had the burden of not having the best possible preflight photography, and they weren't ready. , Other changes included the installation of anti-slosh baffles in the LM descent stage's propellant tanks. Despite concerns based on the docking problems early in the mission, the docking was successful on the first attempt, though the LM's Abort Guidance System, used for navigation, failed just before the two craft docked. All of the Apollo missions placed NASA and the astronauts under extreme pressure to succeed, but Apollo 14 faced unusual challenges even before it launched in February 1971. The two seismometers would, in combination with those left by later Apollo missions, constitute a network of such instruments at different locations on the Moon. With the landing radar, Shepard steered the LM to a landing which was the closest to the intended target of the six missions that landed on the Moon.  At 6,505,548 pounds (2,950,867 kg), it was the heaviest vehicle yet flown by NASA, 3,814 pounds (1,730 kg) heavier than the launch vehicle for Apollo 13.  In addition to the normal training workload, they had to supervise the changes to the command and service module (CSM) made as a result of the Apollo 13 investigation, much of which was delegated by Shepard to Roosa. , The crew of Apollo 14 trained together for 19 months after assignment to the mission, longer than any other Apollo crew to that point.  The OPSs used on Apollo 14 were modified from those used on previous missions in that the internal heaters were removed as unnecessary. Das Ende des Apollo-Programms war absehbar und es galt als wahrscheinlich, dass man danach vorerst nicht mehr mit einem bemannten Raumschiff zum Mond fliegen würde. Breccias form when the heat and pressure of meteorite impacts fuse small rock fragments together. Apollo 14 astronauts Al Shepard, Ed Mitchell and Stu Roosa embark onto the transfer van for the Countdown Demonstration Test, 31 January 1971. Credit: Science & Society Picture Library / Getty Images. , The investigation into the accident which caused an abort of Apollo 13 delayed Apollo 14.  The Apollo 13 astronauts had suffered shortages of water and of power after the accident. The Apollo 14 basalts are generally richer in aluminum and sometimes richer in potassium than other lunar basalts. Lennolla laskeuduttiin Fra Mauron alueelle, jonne dramaattisen Apollo 13:en suunniteltiin laskeutuvan. Earthrise: My Adventures as an Apollo 14 Astronaut (English Edition) eBook: Mitchell, Edgar, Mahoney, Ellen, Cox, Dr. Brian, Cox, Dr. Brian: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop  , During projects Mercury and Gemini, each mission had a prime and a backup crew. Apollo 14 oli kahdeksas miehitetty avaruuslento Apollo-ohjelmassa ja kolmas, joka laskeutui Kuuhun. , Once the astronauts returned to the vicinity of the LM and were again within view of the television camera, Shepard performed a stunt he had been planning for years in the event he reached the Moon, and which is probably what Apollo 14 is best remembered for. , Apollo 14 astronaut Ed Mitchell sets foot on the Moon, Shepard and Mitchell erect a U.S. flag on the lunar surface, Apollo 14 landing site, photograph by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Astronauts and key Mission Control personnel, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, List of spacewalks and moonwalks 1965–1999, "Apollo 14 Command and Service Module (CSM)", "Apollo 14 Moon shot: Alan Shepard 'told he was too old, "Apollo's schedule shifted by NASA; next flight in April", "50 Years Ago: Apollo 14 and 15 Preparations", "Apollo 14 demonstrated spaceflight challenges are solvable", "Moon‐rock project lost; equipment will burn up", "That time Apollo Astronauts detonated explosives on the Moon", "Apollo 14 mission: Science experiments—Laser Ranging Retroreflector", "Water Gun, Helmet Feedport, In-Suit Drink Bag, and Food Stick", "Celebrating 50 years of moon exploration", "How an MIT computer scientist saved Apollo 14", "Apollo 14 mission: Surface operations overview", "Apollo 14 Mission Lunar Sample Overview", "A lunar rock sample found by Apollo 14 astronauts likely came from Earth", "Apollo astronauts land within a mile of target after a 'terrific flight, "Crew of Apollo 14 to begin quarantine at Texas lab today", Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "Impact Sites of Apollo LM Ascent and SIVB Stages", "NASA Spacecraft Images Offer Sharper Views of Apollo Landing Sites", "Apollo 14 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription", Apollo 12 photographic sequence of Apollo 14 landing site, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apollo_14&oldid=1000757288, Short description is different from Wikidata, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Missions are ordered by launch date. When Shepard and Mitchell were on their geology field trips, Roosa would be overhead in an airplane taking photographs of the site and making observations.  The flight name is replaced by "BEEP BEEP" and the backup crew's names are given. Scan by Ed Hengeveld. August 1969, kurz nach der erfolgreichen Mondlandung durch Apollo 11, gab die NASA die Mannschaften für die Missionen Apollo 13 und Apollo 14 bekannt. 28,50 € Nur noch 1 auf Lager (mehr ist unterwegs). In the first, one of the crew members would deploy three geophones at distances up to 310 feet (94 m) from the ALSEP's Central Station, and on his way back from the furthest, fire thumpers every 15 feet (4.6 m). He became a fighter pilot and then in 1965 successfully completed Aerospace Research Pilot School (ARPS) at Edwards Air Force Base in California prior to his selection as a Group 5 astronaut the following year. The Apollo 14 basalts were formed 4.0 to 4.3 billion years ago, older than the volcanism known to have occurred at any of the mare locations reached during the Apollo program.  After the mission, troubleshooting found a tiny piece of aluminum contaminating the shutter control circuit, which caused the shutter to operate continuously. On May 7, 1970, NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine announced that Apollo 14 would launch no earlier than December 3, and the landing would be close to the site targeted by Apollo 13.  On the way back to the LM, the astronauts collected and documented lunar samples, and took photographs of the area. , At 81:56:40.70 into the mission (February 4 at 1:59:43 am EST; 06:59:43 UTC), the Service Propulsion System engine in the SM was fired for 370.84 seconds to send the craft into a lunar orbit with apocynthion of 169 nautical miles (313 km; 194 mi) and pericynthion of 58.1 nautical miles (107.6 km; 66.9 mi).  Mitchell deployed the ASE's geophone lines, unreeling and emplacing the two 310 feet (94 m) lines leading out from the ALSEP's Central Station.  Apollo 14 was scheduled for July 1970, but in January of that year, due to budget cuts that saw the cancellation of Apollo 20, NASA decided there would be two Apollo missions per year with 1970 to see Apollo 13 in April and Apollo 14 likely in October or November.  A gold band around the edge includes the mission and astronaut names.  Usually low in seniority, support crew members assembled the mission's rules, flight plan, and checklists, and kept them updated; for Apollo 14, they were Philip K. Chapman, Bruce McCandless II, William R. Pogue and C. Gordon Fullerton.  Mission Control proposed that they try it again with the docking probe retracted, hoping the contact would trigger the latches. Later analysis using the pictures they took determined that they had come within about 65 feet (20 m) of the crater's rim. Lento onnistui monista ongelmista huolimatta. Apollo 9 commander James McDivitt believed meetings that required a member of the flight crew were being missed, so for Apollo a third crew of astronauts was added, known as the support crew. 4,8 von 5 Sternen 10. After Apollo 13 returned, it was decided that its landing site, near Cone crater in the Fra Mauro formation, was scientifically more important than Littrow. , Roosa undertook training for his period alone in lunar orbit, when he would make observations of the Moon and take photographs. , The S-IVB booster impacted the Moon on February 4 at 8°10′52″S 26°01′50″W / 8.181°S 26.0305°W / -8.181; -26.0305 (Apollo 14 S-IVB).  The Lunar Module Pilot (LMP), Edgar Mitchell, aged 40 at the time of Apollo 14, joined the Navy in 1952 and served as a fighter pilot, beginning in 1954. Gebundene Ausgabe. Antares was the star, in the constellation Scorpius, that the astronauts in the LM would use to orient the craft for its lunar landing; it had been named by Mitchell. , The change in landing site from Littrow to Fra Mauro affected the geological training for Apollo 14. , The Command and Service Modules were delivered to KSC on November 19, 1969; the ascent stage of the LM arrived on November 21 with the descent stage three days later.  Schmitt flew instead of Engle because there was intense pressure on NASA to fly a scientist to the Moon (Schmitt was a geologist) and Apollo 17 was the last lunar flight. The instruments were arrayed around a central station which supplied power to run the instruments and communications so data collected by the experiments could be relayed to Earth.  Others were less happy; Don Wilhelms wrote in his book on the geological aspects of Apollo, "the golf game did not set well with most geologists in light of the results at Cone crater. 23,28 € Nur noch 2 auf Lager. The quantity probe in each tank was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel. " The first EVA began at 9:42 am EST (14:42 UTC) on February 5, 1971, having been delayed by a problem with the communications system which set back the start of the first EVA to five hours after landing. He stated after the mission that two of the four had gotten 51 out of 200 correct (the others were less successful), whereas random chance would have dictated 40. The primary objectives of the Apollo 14 mission were to explore the Fra Mauro region of the Moon, centered around deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Scientific Experiments Package, or ALSEP.  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